There is a series of essential equipment for protection against fires, all specified in the AVCB report (Auto Inspection of the Fire Department), a necessary document for the operation of any enterprise or business. Generally, the removal of this report requires the presence of certain items in the environment, such as fire extinguishers, alarms, smoke sensors and hydrants.
However, it is important that the dispensation of the space itself also offers protection in emergencies, such as escape routes. In this scenario, the fire door has a special mission to preserve lives and the structure of the environment.
The fire door consists of equipment present in several buildings, being mandatory by Brazilian standards. In general, the door aims to contain the proliferation of flames, heat and smoke in fire situations, being widely used in emergency exits, promoting a safe escape route for people present at the site.
In addition, they are very present in emergency stairs and accesses, in the most diverse environments and enterprises, such as stores, cinemas, schools, colleges, industry and offices. As you have already noted, the door is installed in basically all the spaces that make up our daily lives, ensuring safety and avoiding significant losses.
Another advantage of the door is that its insulating capacity allows firefighters to pass through, making it possible to contain the fire, reducing the impacts of flames on the structure and also preventing major disasters, such as landslides.
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The main feature of the door, as discussed, is its flame resistance. Because it is made of tin plates, the equipment can withstand an average of 100 minutes exposed to fire, a time when it is possible to carry out actions to contain and eliminate the outbreaks of fires, in addition to being a positive period for the performance of firefighters.
The door thickness is another item that draws attention, being characteristic according to its usability. For 3m² lower doors, the thickness is around 66mm. Already those above 3m², the thickness consists of about 88mm.
Another feature that facilitates escape routes is the direction of the opening, that is, they can be opened either from right to left or vice versa. Both sides also have an anti-panic bar, whose characteristics you will learn about in the following topics.
Another aspect of the door that must be taken into account is its mechanical strength, which supports use by a large flow of people. In addition, it has excellent sound insulation, which can be the differential in situations of panic and risk.
The fire door is classified according to its resistance, protection capacity according to the time of exposure to the flames and the place where it will be used, according to the number of people that can be agglomerated to the environment. These classes follow the ABNT NBR 11742 standard of the Brazilian Technical Standards Association, check out the main ones below.
The most suitable for offices and commercial spaces, it is widely used for emergency stairs and antechamber exits. It has a minimum resistance of 60 minutes in contact with flames, working as a great escape route.
his model is very similar to the one previously described, however, since it is resistant to smoke, it is the most suitable for emergency exits that do not have antechambers.
This model, on the other hand, resists the onslaught of flames in fire situations for at least 90 minutes, being widely used in fire walls and access closings.
Resistant to at least 120 minutes of exposure to fire, they are used in fire walls, emergency exits and other places with the same purpose.
Generally, the fire door is used every day, when residents or visitors to a place use the stairs to move between the building's floors, for example. For this reason, it is essential that preventive maintenance is carried out on this equipment, which is usually carried out monthly and every six months..
Monthly maintenance needs to check the accessories responsible for opening and closing the doors, thus ensuring their proper functioning. In the case of half-yearly maintenance, in turn, they check the condition of the hinges, the door structure and, also, if there is a need for lubrication of these items. Finally, in all these processes it is essential to understand if there is any problem that prevents the door from functioning properly.
Anti-panic bars consist of the most common accessories in fire doors, whose main function is to facilitate the opening and closing of these spaces.
Like the doors, the bar follows the standards of the Brazilian Association of Technical Standards, more specifically ABNT NBR 11742, which standardizes and dictates the structure and presentation of this equipment.
They must be attached to the fire door structure, ensuring immediate opening and practical escape in emergency situations.
There are some measures that can be taken to ensure and enhance the security of the door, such as:
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